Cardio training: the best exercises, videos, coaching tips and nutrition
Especially for RIA Novosti, sports experts talk about the benefits of cardio training, share the basic rules of effective training aimed at burning fat, and highlight the best weight loss exercises that you can do at home.
Many experts will confirm: it is impossible to lose weight without cardio training. Doing only strength exercises with increased intensity, a person will get strong muscles under the fat layer, which can increase weight and make the body visually larger.
In order for physical activity to be balanced, and muscle groups to develop evenly, it is necessary to include cardio training in your sports program. This will not only help speed up metabolism and burn fat, but also strengthen the cardiovascular system, increase stamina and improve well-being.
“Cardio training is an aerobic load on the body with intensive work of the heart and lungs. During exercise, the heart rate increases and blood circulation increases. That is, any workout that makes the heart work in a rapid mode refers to cardio load. The main task of cardio is acceleration of metabolism.Regular workouts lasting 40-60 minutes can strengthen the cardiovascular system, increase endurance, reduce weight and, of course, keep the body in excellent physical shape,” comments Vadim Schemenenko, coordinator of the Pride Fitness fitness club network.
“Cardio training is a type of physical activity necessary for everyone, in which the heart works in a rapid mode, and subcutaneous fat and glycogen act as a source of energy. Loads of this kind positively affect the functioning of the whole organism, restore and maintain the health of the heart and blood vessels, develop the respiratory system, increase endurance , normalize metabolism, help to lose weight, help relieve stress and anxiety, have a beneficial effect on brain function, improve cognitive function and increase energy levels. With regular cardio training, you can preserve youth, improve the quality of life and its duration, “says the master trainer of the network fitness clubs N1 WorldClass, nutritionist Olga Solovieva.
The main benefit of cardio training is strengthening the cardiovascular system. It is high-intensity training that saturates the cells with oxygen, trains the heart muscle and tone the body. Together, this type of regular physical activity improves health, reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack and diabetes. The most important thing is to gradually increase the intensity, giving your body new tasks to achieve greater endurance.
The second attractive benefit is weight loss. A combination of cardio and a proper, balanced diet can help you lose weight without harming your health or losing muscle strength. Also, intensive cardio loads contribute to the production of endorphins, due to which a person becomes more resistant to stressful situations. Therefore, the less stress, the less overeating with delicious fast food and sweets at night, disruptions in the diet with restrictions. Plus, cardio gives a good mood and a charge of vivacity, which increases efficiency and helps to overcome sleep problems.
Another benefit that cardio training gives to our body is the strengthening and development of muscles. A properly designed cardio training program will help burn extra calories and work out several muscle groups at once. A similar type of training, which is especially popular with athletes, is Tabata. It combines several cycles, which include standard cardio (running, jumping, burpees) and strength exercises (twisting, squats, lunges, push-ups). Low-intensity training helps to work out the muscles, additionally burning fat. There are a lot of options for this type of physical activity, and this is another advantage.
Conventionally, cardio training can be divided into high-intensity, medium-intensity and interval training. Each of them involves the performance of certain exercises, taking into account the degree of load, the duration of classes and breaks between sets. But there are classic types of cardio that solve all the basic tasks.
Walking or running
“Walking is the easiest and most affordable way of cardio training, it does not require additional equipment and financial investments. Walking is a natural and absolutely necessary type of activity for everyone. To enhance the training effect, you can walk at a higher pace or use a treadmill in a fitness club in lifting mode Nordic walking will allow you to activate almost all the muscles of the body, additionally using the muscles of the arms, back, and abdomen in comparison with ordinary walking, “comments Olga Solovieva.
Expert Vadim Schemenenko notes that walking is a great cardio option for beginners and people with a lot of weight. Since when comparing
With a very low load, the heart is not overloaded. “It is necessary to start with walking at the usual pace, gradually increasing the speed of movement,” the specialist advises.
Running is a more intense form of cardio. Suitable for physically active people, a great way to recharge your batteries in the morning or relieve stress after a hard day in the evening. Contraindicated in the presence of large excess weight, diseases of the cardiovascular system and the musculoskeletal system. Beginners should start from 10 minutes a day, increasing the duration of each session by 2-3 minutes.
“Swimming provides an optimal load for the muscles of the back and legs, which will provide good support to the spine and avoid back pain. Water also has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the nervous system, helps to create a harmonious internal state,” notes Olga Solovieva.
Vadim Schemenenko recommends visiting the pool at least 2-3 times a week to get the result. “The main advantage of this particular type of cardio training is the minimal load on the spine. For this reason, swimming is recommended not only for healthy people, but also for those who have problems with the spine and joints,” the expert comments.
Exercise machines help to diversify cardio training, simulating running, walking, cycling, etc. The main advantage of using special equipment is the ability to set the necessary indicators to control the heart rate and load on the body. Also, simulators have a minimal load on the joints, and the possibility of obtaining advice from a trainer will help to avoid injuries and overload.
Cycling or saturating the cells with oxygen, thanks to being in the fresh air, and trains the muscles of the legs without injuring the joints and bones. The bicycle can be replaced with an exercise bike, which will not reduce the benefits of this type of physical activity. Ideally, exercise 3 times a week for half an hour. In addition, each workout will help burn up to 550 kcal.
Aerobics and dancing give a good mood, calm the nervous system and increase stress resistance. The main advantage is variability. There are many areas of aerobic exercise that will help you choose the right type of training.
“Rhythmic movement to music is not only a stable and fairly high cardio load, but also a pleasure. It is especially important to follow the technique here, otherwise there is a risk of injury to the ligaments and joints. In addition, such exercises are not recommended for people with sore knees,” comments Vadim Shchemenenko.
In order for training to be effective and beneficial to the body, you need to follow a few rules:
– be sure to control the pulse;
– make an optimal training schedule, taking into account the level of physical fitness and other features;
– watch your diet.
You also need to choose comfortable clothes and shoes. This is an important factor for useful workouts.
How often can you practice
“Adults are recommended to devote at least two hours a week to aerobic (cardio) physical activity. And take walks daily, walk at least 60 minutes a day,” notes Olga Solovyova.
“I recommend doing cardio training 1-2 times a week. The best option is to combine cardio with regular exercises in the gym,” comments Vadim Schemenenko.
How much time can you practice
“A standard cardio workout lasts from 40 to 60 minutes. Fat burning begins after the body’s energy supply is exhausted, that is, after about 20 minutes of intense exercise,” answers Vadim Schemenenko.
Heart rate control
An important point in cardio training is heart rate control. This will help protect the body from increased stress and control the intensity of the workout.
You can calculate your heart rate zones using the formula: 220 minus age multiplied by%, where:
— 50-60% low-intensity load, suitable for beginners 60-75% fat burning zone and the optimal range for long-term cardio training 40-90 minutes;
—70-80% strength training zone, recommended for trained people;
— above 80% high-intensity training zone, recommended for experienced athletes only.
“The simplest formula for calculating the optimal heart rate: 220 minus your age, multiply the resulting number by 0.6-0.7. The difference between the lower and upper limits of the heart rate is approximately 20 units,” comments Vadim Schemenenko. Both formulas are suitable for calculating the pulse and monitoring the heart rate throughout the training.
“It is not recommended to do cardio on an empty stomach. At best, the workout will be less effective, because you will have less energy. At worst, this can lead to fainting and loss of consciousness,” Olga Solovieva comments. “Before and after training, it is better to reduce fat intake, giving preference proteins and carbohydrates.Eating should be 1.5 – 2 hours before and after training.It is important that at the time you start training you feel comfortable, there is no feeling of hunger or oversaturation.
and fat-burning effect training, it is very important to consider the total daily caloric content of food. If the training is aimed at developing endurance or speed, you can reduce the interval between eating before and after training. And be sure to drink water during your workout when you feel thirsty.”
“For eating after cardio training, protein products (egg white, protein) and dietary meats (veal, fillet, chicken liver, turkey) are suitable,” Vadim Schemenenko recommends.
Clothing and footwear
Olga Solovieva notes that when choosing clothes and shoes for cardio training, comfort is a key factor. “You should be comfortable. Shoes must be athletic, light enough, but tight-fitting and fixing the foot. Clothing is preferable from technological sports materials that wick away moisture and allow the skin to breathe,” the expert explains.
“Clothes for cardio training can be divided into 2 types: for the street and for the gym. If you exercise outside, you need to pay attention to the weather. In cold seasons, turn to layering, be sure to wear thermal underwear. Indoors, it is best to wear a synthetic form that allows to remove moisture. The cotton form gets wet very quickly from sweat and does not evaporate, creating uncomfortable sensations on the body. From shoes, I can recommend sneakers with shock-absorbing soles. Comfort is the main factor for choosing shoes,” says fitness trainer, co-founder of the FitStars platform Mikhail Prygunov
The most effective cardio exercises. Video
“The most effective exercises, in my opinion: burpees, jumping rope, Jumping Jack, rock climber (running in the plank), running in place with a high hip lift,” says Mikhail Prygunov.
Before classes, it is important to do a warm-up: a few exercises to warm up the joints and muscles.
Exercise 1. Burpee
1 Starting position: feet shoulder-width apart, buttocks tense, stomach retracted, back straight.
2 As you exhale, squat down and place your palms on the floor. Try not to lift your heels off the floor.
3In a half-jump, shift your body weight onto your hands, stretching your legs back. Take a plank position.
4 Keeping your core, abs, and glutes engaged, do one push-up. Return to the stop position.
5Squeezing your abdominal muscles, half-jump pull your legs inward.
6From a squat position, jump up. Can be done with hand clapping or pulling the arms back.
Exercise 2. “Jumping Jack”
1Stand up straight. The feet are brought together, the arms are lowered.
2 Bend your knees and jump up. In the jump, simultaneously spread your legs slightly wider than your shoulders and raise your arms through the sides up, you can clap on your head.
3 Jump back to the starting position.
Repeat jumps at a fast pace.
Exercise 3. “Climber” (running in the plank)
1 Starting position: plank on straight arms. The palms are exactly under the shoulders, the muscles of the press and buttocks are tense, the back is straight in a natural deflection.
2 Pull your right knee to your chest, tensing your abs even more.
3 In a half jump, pull your left knee to your chest, simulating a run in a plank position.
Also, in the training program, you can include jumping rope, active dancing, jogging and active leisure, which are some of the effective cardio exercises.
Contraindications to cardio training
“The peculiarity of cardio training is to increase the heart rate, so you should pay special attention to your health and be sure to monitor your well-being during the session. If you have diseases of the cardiovascular system, overweight, pregnancy, kidney and liver diseases, cardio should be approached very carefully, it is best to consult with a sports doctor or coach,” comments Vadim Schemenenko.
In the presence of any chronic diseases, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of the doctor. “Especially after operations and injuries of any origin, as well as diseases of the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems,” says Olga Solovieva.
“If you are just planning to start cardio training, the first time classes should be under the supervision of an instructor. The trainer will correctly distribute the load, which will help to avoid injuries and other unpleasant situations for the body,” Vadim Schemenenko recommends.
“Low-to-medium-intensity cardio workouts are recognized as some of the most beneficial workouts for health. The cardiovascular system must be in good shape, so it needs to be paid attention to: walk a lot, move a lot, play sports at home. Gradually, you can increase the intensity of training to strengthen body, move from simple to complex, improving your personal performance,” says Mikhail Prygunov.
“Everyone needs cardio training. The most important thing is to start smoothly, gradually increasing the load. Try new types of activity and find what is pleasant and interesting for you. The world of fitness is multifaceted, there is definitely a type of training or an active hobby that will captivate you, allow you to maintain or restore health youth, vivacity and pleasure